BBC News Country Profiles - Profiles provide the history, politics and economic background of countries and territories, and background on key institutions. Also includes current news.
CIA World Factbook - Covers the geography, people, government, economy, communication, transportation and transnational issues.
Country Studies - Description and analysis of the historical setting and social, economic, political and national security systems and institutions. These country studies are written by the Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress. Dated, but excellent for the history of each country.
Infoplease Countries of the World - Brief coverage of the geography, people, history, government, economy, communication, and transportation.
Nations of the World - Political, economic and business information for all nations.
U.S. Department of State: Background Notes - Profiles include history, politics, economy and much more. Scroll down on the page to see the list of countries and when the profiles were last updated.
Holidays and Observances Around the World - Lists holidays, observances, meanings, and more.
Flags of the World - "The Internet's largest site devoted to vexillology (the study of flags)."
NationMaster - In-depth statistics for countries of the world.